WASTE can take any form that is either solid, liquid, or gas and each have different methods of disposal and management. Waste management normally deals with all types of waste whether it was created in forms that are industrial, biological, household, and special cases where it may pose a threat to human health
WASTE MANAGEMENT OR WASTE DISPOSAL are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal, this includes the collection, transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage, and other waste products. Waste management encompasses management of all processes and resources for proper handling of waste materials, from maintenance of waste transport trucks and dumping facilities to compliance with health codes and environmental regulation.
WASTE MANAGEMENT is also the process of treating solid wastes and offers variety of solutions for recycling items that don’t belong to trash. It is about how garbage can be used as a valuable resource. Waste management is something that each and every household and business owner in the world needs. Waste management is intended to reduce adverse effect of waste on health and the environment.
CLASSICIFICATION OF WASTE
SOURCES OF WASTE
- Industrial waste
- Biochemical/clinical waste
- Animal waste
- Mineral waste
- Domestic waste
|TYPES OF WASTE||TIME TO DECOMPOSE|
|Paper towel||2-4 weeks|
|Banana peel||304 weeks|
|Orange peel||6 month|
|Milk cartons||5 years|
|Rubber boot sole||50-80 yrs|
|Plastic bag||200-1000 yrs|
|Paper bag||I month|
|Cigarette butt||10-12 yrs|
WHY WASTE MANAGEMENT??
The reason we need to study about waste management is because when left un-cared for these waste accumulate and cause serious health hazards to:
- Human: some time ago in Minamata Japan, there was a toxic disorder of CNS-central nervous system due to mismanagement of their waste
- Many aquatic animal die every year because of plastic bag litter,
- Also ,many terrestrial animal eat plastic from dumping sites and leads to their death
- Air , water ,soil Pollution
METHODS OF WASTE DISPOSAL
Throwing daily waste/garbage in the landfills is the most popularly used method of waste disposal used today. This process of waste disposal focuses attention on burying the waste in the land. Landfills are commonly found in developing countries. There is a process used that eliminates the odors and dangers of waste before it is placed into the ground. While it is true this is the most popular form of waste disposal, it is certainly far from the only procedure and one that may also bring with it an assortment of space.
This method is becoming less these days although, thanks to the lack of space available and the strong presence of methane and other landfill gases, both of which can cause numerous contamination problems. Landfills give rise to air and water pollution which severely affects the environment and can prove fatal to the lives of humans and animals. Many areas are reconsidering the use of landfills.
Incineration or combustion is a type disposal method in which municipal solid wastes are burned at high temperatures so as as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. The biggest advantage of this type of method is that it can reduce the volume of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume, decreases the space they take up and reduce the stress on landfills.
This process is also known as thermal treatment where solid waste materials are converted by Incinerators into heat, gas, steam and ash. Incineration is something that is very in countries where landfill space is no longer available, which includes Japan.
RECOVERY AND RECYCLING
Resource recovery is the process of taking useful discarded items for a specific next use. These discarded items are then processed to extract or recover materials and resources or convert them to energy in the form of useable heat, electricity or fuel.
Recycling is the process of converting waste products into new products to prevent energy usage and consumption of fresh raw materials. The idea behind recycling is to reduce energy usage, reduce volume of landfills, reduce air and water pollution, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and preserve natural resources for future use.
Plasma gasification is another form of waste management. Plasma is a primarily an electrically charged or a highly ionized gas. Lighting is one type of plasma which produces temperatures that exceed 12,600 °F . With this method of waste disposal, a vessel uses characteristic plasma torches operating at +10,000 °F which is creating a gasification zone till 3,000 °F for the conversion of solid or liquid wastes into a syngas.
During the treatment solid waste by plasma gasification, the waste’s molecular bonds are broken down as result of the intense heat in the vessels and the elemental components. Thanks to this process, destruction of waste and dangerous materials is found. This form of waste disposal provides renewable energy and an assortment of other fantastic benefits.
Composting is an easy and natural bio-degradation process that takes organic wastes i.e. remains of plants and garden and kitchen waste and turns into nutrient rich food for your plants. Composting, normally used for organic farming, occurs by allowing organic materials to sit in one place for months until microbes decompose it. Composting is one of the best methods of waste disposal as it can turn unsafe organic products into safe compost. On the other side, it is slow process and takes lot of space.
WASTE TO ENERGY (RECOVER ENERGY)
Waste to energy (WtE) process involves converting of non-recyclable waste items into useable heat, electricity, or fuel through a variety of processes. This type of source of energy is a renewable energy source as non-recyclable waste can be used over and over again to create energy. It can also help to reduce carbon emissions by offsetting the need for energy from fossil sources. Waste-to-Energy, also widely recognized by its acronym WtE is the generation of energy in the form of heat or electricity from waste.
The easier method of waste management is to reduce creation of waste materials thereby reducing the amount of waste going to landfills. Waste reduction can be done through recycling old materials like jar, bags, repairing broken items instead of buying new one, avoiding use of disposable products like plastic bags, reusing second hand items, and buying items that uses less designing.
Recycling and composting are a couple of the best methods of waste management. Composting is so far only possible on a small scale, either by private individuals or in areas where waste can be mixed with farming soil or used for landscaping purposes. Recycling is widely used around the world, with plastic, paper and metal leading the list of the most recyclable items. Most material recycled is reused for its original purpose.
BENEFIT OF WASTE MANAGEMENT
1. This practice is highly lucrative:
The journal of Waste management says that the revenues generated by the waste management would top by $60 million by 2018. But, there are only a few people who sincerely consider this as an industry into various facets of waste management like recycling and reusing, and reap the benefits. Now many companies are looking forward to associate themselves with this industry and are ready for a long term investment.
2. Keeps the environment clean and fresh:
Perhaps, the greatest advantage of waste management is keeping the environment fresh and neat. These waste disposal units also make the people go disease free as all the resultant wastes are properly disposed and taken care of. More number of waste disposal units can be placed in all the tier-1 and tier-2 cities so that the waste disposal process can be prepped up. Also a point worthy of our consideration here is that this advantage can be taken into account only if extensive and proper safety measures are implemented along with proper waste disposal techniques. There is no use in simply implementing a half-baked technique which, if no use to both the people and the environment. This is the best effects of proper waste disposal.
3. Saves the Earth and conserves energy:
This characteristic of waste management includes specifically the recycling aspect. As recycling of waste helps in reducing the cutting down of trees. This cutting of trees is mainly done for the production of paper. By using this method, we can use the recycled waste to make quality papers rather than relying on trees. Also, recycling needs only a minimal amount of energy for utilization and complete processing. The resultant product we obtain is a renewable source of energy and is eco-friendly.
4. Reduces environmental pollution:
Waste management if done in a proper manner not only eliminates the surrounding waste, but also will reduce the intensity of the greenhouse gases like methane, carbon monoxide which is emitted from the wastes accumulated. The depth of the existing landfills and incinerations will be curbed, thereby cutting down the harmful factors that affect the environment. Also, the amount of fossil fuels will get reduced in this manner, leading to a cleaner and a greener environment.
5. Waste management will help you earn money:
Waste management earns you a few extra bucks every month. Actually, there are many companies which will pay you for your waste. Right from old and used bottles to tin cans and e-wastes, all kinds of wastes are collected and paid. These wastes are then segregated according to the extent of pollution they cause to the environment and these wastes are recycled accordingly for various purposes. There are also crash courses available which will aid you to reuse your trash. Above all, by following this method you can create an awareness to your fellow people by earning money, which is a win-win concept.
6. Creates employment:
In all the facets of waste management, a huge amount of labour is needed. Right from the collection to the final step of segregation, every phase needs manpower and ultimately a large number of employment opportunities get opened up. This claim is evident from the labour statistics provided by the US government, according to which around 3.1 million new jobs are produced due to the waste management factor.
The Bottom Line
There are certain waste types of waste that are considered as hazardous and cannot be disposed of without special handling which will prevent contamination from occurring. Biomedical waste is one example of such. This is found in health care facilities and similar institutions. The special waste disposal system for this unit in place to dispose of this type of waste.